Western University (2:16)
CRAAP Test by librarian Sarah Blakelee (2004), CSU Chico.
The process of evaluating a source includes examining the source itself and examining other sources.
Use the CRAAP Test to help you determine if the sources you found are accurate and reliable. Keep in mind that the following list is not static or complete. Different criteria will be more or less important depending on your situation or need.
* indicates criteria is for web sources only
Currency: The timeliness of the information.
Relevance: The importance of the information for your needs.
Authority: The source of the information.
Accuracy: The reliability, truthfulness, and correctness of the informational content.
Purpose: The reason the information exists.
The News Literacy Project teaches children how to evaluate the credibility of information they get online (Quartz, 3:09).
As web companies strive to tailor their services (including news and search results) to our personal tastes, there's a dangerous unintended consequence: We get trapped in a "filter bubble" and don't get exposed to information that could challenge or broaden our worldview. Eli Pariser argues powerfully that this will ultimately prove to be bad for us and bad for democracy (Eli Pariser, TED Talk, 8:50).
Host Myles Bess breaks down the research around why our brains can so easily make us believe that fake news is real news (Above the Noise, 5:20).
University of West Florida, John C. Pace Library (4:48)
This video provides a graduated approach to how students might select relevant articles from a list of results. The four steps include reading the titles, reading the abstracts of the promising titles and downloading those articles, sorting the articles based on relevance, and then reading those articles. Use of the dating example works well for undergraduates. Because of the branding at the end of the video, it might not be great in a LibGuide; however, the instruction librarian can also show this video in class and/or talk about/demo these strategies with some other advice. The video has some library branding throughout, and the first part of the video is better than the latter half. Start the video at 0:02, and stop the video at 4:35 to skip over the majority of the library branding and specific library information.
Do you think you're good at spotting fake videos, where famous people say things they've never said in real life? See how they're made in this astonishing talk and tech demo. Computer scientist Supasorn Suwajanakorn shows how, as a grad student, he used AI and 3D modeling to create photorealistic fake videos of people synced to audio. Learn more about both the ethical implications and the creative possibilities of this tech -- and the steps being taken to fight against its misuse (TED, 3:15).
View full lesson: Not all scientific studies are created equal - David H. Schwartz. Every day, we are bombarded by attention grabbing headlines that promise miracle cures to all of our ailments -- often backed up by a "scientific study." But what are these studies, and how do we know if they are reliable? David H. Schwartz dissects two types of studies that scientists use, illuminating why you should always approach the claims with a critical eye. Lesson by David H. Schwartz, animation by Augenblick Studios.
North Carolina State University (NCSU) Libraries (3:14).
P.R.O.V.E.N. Source Evaluation by librarian Ellen Carey (2018), Santa Barbara City College, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The process of evaluating a source includes examining the source itself and examining other sources by:
The questions below will help you think critically during the source evaluation process:
Purpose: How and why the source was created.
Relevance: The value of the source for your needs.
Objectivity: The reasonableness and completeness of the information.
Verifiability: The accuracy and truthfulness of the information.
Expertise: The authority of the authors and the source.
Newness: The age of the information.
1Based on Caulfield, Mike. "Four Moves and a Habit." Web Literacy for Student Fact-Checkers, 2017.
North Carolina State University (NCSU) Libraries, 2:08
How do we choose which news to consume? Get the scoop on how opinions and facts affect the news and how to tell them apart (Damon Brown, TED-Ed, 4:48).
"Confirmation bias” is probably something you’re familiar with —even if you weren’t aware of the term (Countable, 1:55).
This 3-minute video describes Joseph Bizup's BEAM research model: background, exhibit, argument, and method (Portland State University Library, 3:25).
John Oliver discusses how and why media outlets so often report untrue or incomplete information as science (LastWeekTonight, 19:27).
Above the Noise (4:17)
John Oliver outlines what, exactly is problematic about Dr. Oz and the nutrition supplement industry. Then he invites George R.R. Martin, Steve Buscemi, the Black and Gold Marching Elite, and some fake real housewives on the show to illustrate how to pander to an audience without hurting anyone.