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APA 7: References List

Learn how to format your papers and cite sources in APA 7th edition.

Guidance from APA Style, Purdue OWL, & Excelsior OWL

Reference examples are covered in Chapter 10 of the APA Publication Manual

Basic Reference List Guidelines

  • A References list refers to the page at the end of your paper listing all the sources you used.
  • The word References should be centered & in bold at the top of the page.
    • Use Reference if just one source.
  • Order citations alphabetically, typically by author last name.
  • Citations should  be double-spaced.
  • For citations that are longer than one line, include a hanging indent after the first line.
  • List author last names and first initials for up to and including 20 authors.
  • Links can be live if you intend for your audience to read your work online.

More About DOIs & URLs

DOI & URL Guidelines

  • Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.
    • If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI.
    • Use the DOI for journal articles from most library databases. 
      • If the DOI is not available, treat the work as a print source. 
      • Don't include the URL or database information. 
    • Don't use a period after a DOI. 
  • Use the URL for websites as long as it will work for your audience.
    • If the URL is no longer working, try to find an archived version using the Internet Archive & use the archived URL. 
    • Don't use a period after a URL. 
    • While a retrieval date isn't required for most websites, list a retrieval date when the content is likely to change or be updated.
      • Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL

How to Add Hanging Indents in Google Docs

This video shares "[h]ow to add hanging indents in Google Docs..." (Jen Jonson, 0:35).

Merced College Library APA 7 Handout

APA Sample Citations

How to Format a Hanging Indent in Microsoft Office 365 Word

"Demonstration of how to format hanging indents in the browser version of Microsoft Word" (Bellevue College Writing Lab, 2:21). Office 365 was rebranded to Microsoft 365 in 2020.