Western University (2:16)
CRAAP Test by librarian Sarah Blakelee (2004), CSU Chico.
The process of evaluating a source includes examining the source itself and examining other sources.
Use the CRAAP Test to help you determine if the sources you found are accurate and reliable. Keep in mind that the following list is not static or complete. Different criteria will be more or less important depending on your situation or need.
* indicates criteria is for web sources only
Currency: The timeliness of the information.
Relevance: The importance of the information for your needs.
Authority: The source of the information.
Accuracy: The reliability, truthfulness, and correctness of the informational content.
Purpose: The reason the information exists.
P.R.O.V.E.N. Source Evaluation by librarian Ellen Carey (2018), Santa Barbara City College, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The process of evaluating a source includes examining the source itself and examining other sources by:
The questions below will help you think critically during the source evaluation process:
Purpose: How and why the source was created.
Relevance: The value of the source for your needs.
Objectivity: The reasonableness and completeness of the information.
Verifiability: The accuracy and truthfulness of the information.
Expertise: The authority of the authors and the source.
Newness: The age of the information.
1Based on Caulfield, Mike. "Four Moves and a Habit." Web Literacy for Student Fact-Checkers, 2017.
The News Literacy Project teaches children how to evaluate the credibility of information they get online (Quartz, 3:09).