DOIs and URLs
- Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version.
- If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI.
- If an online work has a URL but no DOI, include the URL in the reference as follows:
- For works without DOIs from websites (not including academic research databases), provide a URL in the reference (as long as the URL will work for readers).
- For works without DOIs from most academic research databases, do not include a URL or database information in the reference because these works are widely available. The reference should be the same as the reference for a print version of the work.
- For works from databases that publish original, proprietary material available only in that database (such as the UpToDate database) or for works of limited circulation in databases (such as monographs in the ERIC database), include the name of the database or archive and the URL of the work. If the URL requires a login or is session-specific (meaning it will not resolve for readers), provide the URL of the database or archive home page or login page instead of the URL for the work. (See APA Section 9.30 for more information).
- If the URL is no longer working or no longer provides readers access to the content you intend to cite, try to find an archived version using the Internet Archive, then use the archived URL. If there is no archived URL, do not use that resource.
Format of DOIs and URLs:
Your DOI should look like this:
Follow these guidelines from the APA Style website.